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The chemical nature of silicon

Weden Metal Co.,Limited | Updated: Jan 09, 2018

Silicon at room temperature is not active, its main chemical properties are as follows:

(1) with non-metallic effect

Si can only react with F2 at room temperature, and instantly burns in F2 to form SiF4.

Si + F2 === Si + F4

When heated, it can react with other halogen to form silicon halide and react with oxygen to form SiO2:

Si + 2F2 SiF4 (X = Cl, Br, I)

Si + O2 SiO2 (microstructure of SiO2)

At high temperature, silicon and carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and other non-metallic elemental compound, respectively, to generate silicon carbide SiC, Si3N4 silicon nitride and silicon SiS2.

Si + C SiC

3Si + 2N2 Si3N4

Si + 2S SiS2

(2) with acid

Si is passivated in oxoacids, but reacts with hydrofluoric acid and its mixed acids to form SiF4 or H2SiF6:

Si + 4HF SiF4 ↑ + 2H2 ↑

3Si + 4HNO3 + 18HF === 3H2SiF6 + 4NO ↑ + 8H2O

(3) and alkali role

Amorphous silicon with alkali violent reaction of soluble silicate, and release hydrogen:

Si + 2NaOH + H2O === Na2SiO3 + 2H2 ↑

(4) and the role of metal

Silicon can also with calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, platinum, bismuth and other compounds, generate the corresponding metal silicide.